“From Information to Man” ©®
Information does not evolve.
Information, is either derived (by someone, an already existing individual or teams) or it, is intelligently created new.
By definition, Information is “the communication or reception of knowledge or intelligence” (Merriam Webster, Dictionary, 2018).
Intelligent information turns into “noise” when not properly transmitted and or designed.
Shannon’s Formula for the capacity of a White Gaussian Noise Channel is represented as follows:
Thus, when speaking of the Channel Capacity & The Noisy Channel Coding Theorem, MIT in its paper on Information Theory, described that,
“The bad news is that it is mathematically impossible to get error free communication above the limit. No matter how sophisticated an error correction scheme you use, no matter how much you can compress the data, you can not make the channel go faster than the limit without losing some information.”
It takes intelligence to create, compress and deliver “error free communication.”
MIT paper continues, “The good news is that below the Shannon Limit, it is possible to transmit information with zero error.”
Thus, the information hard coded into the 3.5 billion bits of data (nucleotides) in each human DNA is sufficiently compressed so as to perfectly reproduce itself over and over again with no external direction, other than that which has already been previously programmed.
“No matter how sophisticated an error correction scheme you use, no matter how much you can compress the data, you can not make the channel go faster than the limit without losing some information.”
Freudenrich, Ph.D, in a scholarly article said, “DNA carries the information for making all of the cell’s proteins. These proteins implement all of the functions of a living organism and determine the organism’s characteristics. When the cell reproduces, it has to pass all of this information on to the daughter cells.” (bold ours).
“Before a cell can reproduce, it must first replicate, or make a copy of, it”s DNA. Where DNA replication occurs depends upon whether the cells is a prokaryote or a eukaryote*. DNA replication occurs in the cytoplasm of prokaryotes and in the nucleus of eukaryotes. Regardless of where DNA replication occurs, the basic process is the same.” (Freudenrich, 2018).
*(Eukaryotic cells contain membrane-bound organelles, such as the nucleus, while prokaryotic cells do not- Human cells are Eukaryoke, non-intelligent bacteria are made out of prokaryotic cells.)
Please note that “A subunit of the DNA polymerase proofreads the new DNA” making sure that each replication is exact and error free.
Freudenrich states, “Different types of cells replicate their DNA at different rates. Some cells constantly divide, like those in your hair and fingernails and bone marrow cells. Other cells go through several rounds of cell division and stop (including specialized cells, like those in your brain, muscle and heart). Finally, some cells stop dividing, but can be induced to divide to repair injury (such as skin cells and liver cells). In cells that do not constantly divide, the cues for DNA replication/cell division come in the form of chemicals. “, all of this is previously programmed and perfectly designed to operate as needed in each situation.
Freudenrich concludes, “DNA carries all of the information for your physical characteristics, which are essentially determined by proteins. In DNA, each protein is encoded by a gene (a specific sequence of DNA nucleotides that specify how a single protein is to be made). “
Another publication stated how DNA’s information pre-programmed process is made so that ” The replication process is semi-conservative, which means that when DNA creates a copy, half of the old strand is retained in the new strand to reduce the number of copy errors. DNA contains the code for building an organism and making sure that the organism functions properly. For this reason, DNA is often called the blueprint of life. Its function is comparable to a builder using a blueprint to make a house.”
This is actual information previously coded and designed ahead of time.
HOW FAST DO HUMAN CELL REPLICATE?
The cells of humans enclose a set of chromosomes. “The typical human chromosome has about 150 million base pairs (ie: 300 million nuclotides) that the cell replicates at the rate of 50 pairs per second. At that rate, it would take the cell over a month to copy a chromosome.” (There are 3.5 billion base pairs in all 23 chromosomes. Since healthy humans have 23 chromosomes, then there are 3.5 x 10 to 9 / 23 ~= 150,000,000 base pairs in each chromosome.)
However, the entire process is quicker than that, it all happens in about 1 hour. “The fact that it takes only one hour is because of multiple replication origins.” The human body has multiple replication “factories” in order to minimize the replication time process.
Thus, Information, which intelligently, has been previously coded in the human cell DNA, gets processed so that “Replication simultaneously proceeds from many different points on the chromosome, and enzymes join the sections together to form the final intact copy.”
The ultimate result is that “all 46 human chromosomes replicate at the same time.” (Bank, 2017).
“The good news is that below the Shannon Limit, it is possible to transmit information with zero error”, and this is exactly what we see in the perfect reproduction of DNA, and RNA in each of human’s body cells, millions of times per minute. All of this with little or no defect, except for those produced by occasionally damaging mutations.
This is why the human race exists. Despite mutations occurring on an everyday basis.
“Shannon mathematically proved that there were ways of encoding information that would allow one to get up to the limit without any errors: regardless of the amount of noise or static, or how faint the signal was.” (A FTAB, CHEUNG, KIM, THAKKAR, YEDDANAPUDI, ND)
According to Truman, 2016, “Cells perform millions of Boolean logic operations every second using multiple independent codes with stringent formal rules instantiated on DNA, RNA, proteins, sugars, and membranes. “
“”Computer and cellular variables are used with control structures such as “GoTo,” subroutine calls, “wait,” and to initiate and terminate iteration loops. They have well-defined data types and allowed operations. Values can be structured in arrays and linked lists. “.
There is no doubt that the human body and all organisms, whose nature and basic composition is the DNA strand, are constructed with an intelligently based information systems which computers, intelligently designed by today’s engineers, are desperately trying to imitate. This pertains to any system of today or tomorrow, as Shannon’s Theory if Information proved.
The consequences and denial are far reaching
To deny that the DNA was not programmed and designed by an Intelligent agent, is to deny that any and all computers, hard coded software and hardware is the product or our imagination and an insult to those who devote millions of hours to the preparation and design of such systems and final product.
Furthermore, the trading system among tech companies in the NASDAQ and the Dow Jones, would not exist if it was not for those arduously designed computer Information systems originally made and designed by intelligent engineers throughout the world.
An information process of this nature, complexity and accuracy could not have “evolved” regardless of the billions of years of trial and error. Thus, there is absolute evidence here that the human race is the product of Intelligent “Information to Man”.
“From Information to Man” ©® 2018, Is a Registered Trade Mark that belongs to Hawaii On Line University
*Cells as Information Processors. (Dr. Royal Truman, Mannheim, Germany, firstname.lastname@example.org.Accepted for publication April 22, 2016). Part I: Formal Software Principles Royal Truman*
1 : the communication or reception of knowledge or intelligence
Data that is (1) accurate and timely, (2) specific and organized for a purpose, (3) presented within a context that gives it meaning and relevance, and (4) can lead to an increase in understanding and decrease in uncertainty. Information is valuable because it can affect behavior, a decision, or an outcome.
A FTAB, CHEUNG, KIM, THAKKAR, YEDDANAPUDI. (ND). Information Theory. Information Theory and the Digital Age. Retrieved from https://web.mit.edu/6.933/www/Fall2001/Shannon2.pdf
Bank, E. (2017). How Much Time Does it take for a DNA Molecule to Replicate? Sciencing. Retrieved from https://sciencing.com/much-time-dna-molecule-replicate-21660.html
Freudenrich, C., Ph. D. (2018). How DNA Works. Retrieved from https://science.howstuffworks.com/life/cellular-microscopic/dna3.htm
Reference. (2018). Why does DNA Need to Replicate? Reference. Retrieved from https://www.reference.com/science/dna-need-replicate-34d9bea407cd391e
Computer Integrations, Inc.
“In the human genome, there are 50,000 to 100,000 genes. As DNA polymerase copies the DNA sequence, some mistakes occur. For example, one DNA base in a gene might get substituted for another. This is called a mutation (specifically a point mutation) or variation in the gene. Because the genetic code has built-in redundancies, this mistake might not have much effect on the protein made by the gene. In some cases, the error might be in the third base of a codon and still specify the same amino acid in the protein. In other cases, it may be elsewhere in the codon and specify a different amino acid. If the changed amino acid is not in a crucial part of the protein, then there may be no adverse effect. However, if the changed amino acid is in a crucial part of the protein, then the protein may be defective and not work as well or at all; this type of change can lead to disease. ” (Freudenrich, 2018).